Understanding Multiple sclerosis: Symptoms, Causes, and Management

Research Based
Medically reviewed by - Dr. Tez Pratap Singh, MD Written by - Dr. Diksha Sangle



The central nervous system is impacted by long-term, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis. It is one of the most prevalent brain disorders in young adults, affecting an estimated 2.8 million individuals globally.

We will discover more about its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment in this article.

The central nervous system is impacted by long-term, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis.


What are the symptoms of Multiple sclerosis?

  • Tiredness
  • Low strength and coordination
  • Numbness or tingling sensation
  • Difficulty in balancing and walking.
  • Visual disturbances
  • Affects memory, attention, and brain function.
  • Mood swings

The symptoms can vary significantly in type, severity, and duration. Here are some of them explained:


  • Fatigue is one of the MS symptoms that people most frequently report. It is frequently described as an overwhelming fatigue sensation that significantly influences daily tasks.1Symptoms| Researched based study from

Spasticity and weakness in the muscles

  • Performing tasks that require strength and coordination might be challenging. Additionally, spasticity, or the unintentional tightening or stiffening of muscles, can restrict mobility.

Irritation and tingling

  • Many patients report feeling numb, tingly, or “pins and needles,” frequently in their limbs, faces, or other body parts. Paresthesia, as it is often referred to, may be either temporary or chronic.

Affects balance and coordination

  • Balance and coordination may be affected as a result of disruption with brain-body connection. This may lead to difficulty walking, lightheadedness, and a higher risk of falling.

Impairment of vision

  • In MS, visual symptoms are typical. Blurred or double vision, eye discomfort, uncontrollable eye movements, or a partial or whole loss of vision in one eye are a few examples of these symptoms.1Symptoms| Researched based study from

Cognitive changes

  • Memory, focus, problem-solving, and processing speed may all be impacted. Some people can need help with focusing, multitasking, and digesting information.

Bowel and bladder issues

  • It can affect how the bladder and intestines usually work, causing symptoms including frequent urination, urgency, trouble fully emptying the bladder, constipation, or bowel incontinence.

Emotional changes

  • There might be emotional instability, mood swings, anxiety, and depression.

Sensory sensations and pain

  • It can lead to headaches, neuropathic pain (such as back or joint pain), and other forms of discomfort. Increased sensitivity to temperature, touch, or other stimuli is another possibility.

Difficulty eating and speaking

  • Speech issues, such as slurred speech or trouble articulating words, affect certain people. Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, can also occur.1Symptoms| Researched based study from


Causes of Multiple sclerosis

The exact cause is unknown. It is regarded as a multifactorial disease, implying that it most likely results from a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune factors. Here are some of them listed:

Genetic predisposition

  • There is evidence that genetics played a part in how it developed even if it is not directly inherited. A higher risk exists for those who have a close relative with MS. It is believed that some genes connected to the control of the immune system and the central nervous system have a role.6Causes| Researched based study from

Immune system dysfunction

  • The body’s tissues are the ones that the immune system mistakenly attacks. The immune system attacks the myelin, the covering that protects nerve fibers. This results in myelin inflammation and destruction, which can interfere with nerve signal transmission.1Causes| Researched based study from

Environmental factors

Viral infections

  • There have been correlations with particular diseases, such as the Epstein-Barr virus. It’s important to keep in mind that developing an infection does not always result in MS.

A deficiency of vitamin D

  • Low vitamin D levels are brought on by insufficient food or sun exposure.


  • Smoking has been linked to an increased chance of developing MS, which may worsen the course and severity of the condition.

Geographical factors

  • Particularly in temperate climates farther from the equator, it is more prevalent in several parts of the world. This raises the possibility that environmental elements like latitude and sunshine exposure have a role in the growth of diseases.1Causes| Researched based study from

Risk factors

Risk factors


  • If you have a parent, sibling, or other close relative who has MS, your risk of developing the disease is higher. However, it is estimated that genetics only has a little overall influence.

Geographical area

  • It occurs more frequently in some geographical areas, especially at higher latitudes. The danger is more significant for residents of northern Europe, northern Canada, northern America, and other areas farther from the equator.


  • Women are affected by it more commonly than males, with 2 to 3 women diagnosed for every guy with the disease. Symptoms of multiple sclerosis in females do not vary.3Risk factors| Researched based study from


  • While it may appear at any age, it usually starts between the ages of 20 and 40. Though less frequent, it can also occur in children and older people.

Vitamin D levels

  • An increased risk has been linked to lower vitamin D levels. Reduced sun exposure may contribute to vitamin D deficiency, which may be more prevalent in areas with little sunlight or in people who lead sedentary lifestyles.


  • It has been shown that smoking is a risk factor.7Risk factors| Researched based study from


Diagnosis of Multiple sclerosis

Diagnosing MS typically involves several steps, including:

Medical history

  • Your symptoms, duration, and any previous diseases or medical conditions will all be discussed with the doctor. Giving the doctor a thorough description of our symptoms and medical background may help in their evaluation.

Neurological test

  • Your reflexes, muscle strength, coordination, balance, and sensation are all evaluated, as well as other parts of your neural system. A disorder like MS may be suggested by any anomalies that the doctor finds.

MRI, or magnetic resonance imaging

  • This is a representation of the spinal cord and brain. It can aid in identifying lesions, areas of scarring, or other anomalies that are suggestive of MS. To make particular areas more visible during the MRI; contrast dye may be employed.

Lumbar puncture

  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may occasionally be removed through a lumbar puncture to conduct an analysis. Testing the CSF, the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord can assist in finding specific signs, like the presence of antibodies or immune cells related to the condition.3Diagnosis| Researched based study from

Evoked potentials

  • These tests track the electrical impulses your nervous system produces in response to various stimuli. These can identify any delays or interruptions in nerve signal transmission.

A blood test

  • They might be carried out to look for specific markers or to rule out other illnesses that might mimic MS.
  • It’s important to note that MS can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are variable and overlap with those of other diseases. In some situations, reaching a firm diagnosis could take some time, and more testing might be required.3Diagnosis| Researched based study from


Treatment of Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis treatment aims to control symptoms, reduce the disease’s progression, and enhance the quality of life. Although no known cure for MS exists, several therapy options can help manage the condition and its symptoms.

Disease-modifying treatments (DMTs)

  • They are a class of drugs used to delay the course of MS and lessen the frequency and severity of relapses. They alter the immune system’s response to stop it from attacking the myelin sheath of nerve fibers. There are various oral, injectable, and infusion medications.3Treatment| Researched based study from

Symptoms-based therapies

  • To deal with difficulties, including exhaustion, muscle spasms, discomfort, bladder and bowel irregularities, depression, and cognitive capacities, they may include drugs or therapies.
  • Rehabilitation procedures, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy may also enhance mobility, balance, coordination, and overall function.2Treatment| Researched based study from

Treatment for relapse

  • Relapses in MS sometimes referred to as exacerbations or attacks, are characterized by a sudden onset or worsening of symptoms. A high-dose corticosteroid, such as intravenous methylprednisolone, may be administered to lessen the inflammation and speed recovery.2Treatment| Researched based study from

Supportive care

  • Supportive care is crucial since it can impact a person’s life in many ways. This could entail modifying one’s way of life to include regular exercise, a balanced diet, methods for reducing stress, and enough sleep.

Additionally, helpful are counseling, support groups, and psychological support.

Developing treatments

  • As a result of continual research, new treatments are constantly being developed. These might consist of recently developed disease-modifying medications, cutting-edge strategies targeting specific immune pathways, or innovative therapies now undergoing clinical trials.5Treatment| Researched based study from

Lifestyle changes

Lifestyle changes for Multiple Sclerosis.

Lifestyle changes for Multiple sclerosis

Implementing specific lifestyle changes can significantly contribute to managing MS and enhancing general well-being in addition to medical therapies. Some of them are listed below:

Routine exercise

  • Regular physical activity can help you gain strength, flexibility, and overall health.
  • It can lessen fatigue, boost your mood, and sharpen your mind.

Proper nutrition

  • Keeping up a balanced, nutrient-rich diet is crucial for treating the symptoms. A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, and healthy fats can provide essential nutrients.

A reduction in stress

  • Deep breathing, yoga, and other relaxation techniques can reduce stress and help with MS symptoms.

Adequate rest and sleep

  • It’s essential to get adequate and good-quality sleep. Since fatigue is a frequent symptom, it’s necessary to prioritize rest and develop sound sleeping practices.

Temperature regulation

  • Heat sensitivity is common and might make the symptoms worse. Avoiding extended exposure to extreme temperatures is vital, whether from the environment or activities like taking hot baths or using saunas.

Mental health

  • Having a solid support system and looking for emotional support might be helpful.

Regular examinations

  • Neurologists and other specialists should be seen regularly to monitor the condition’s evolution and modify treatment strategies as necessary.3Lifestyle changes| Researched based study from


Complications associated with Multiple sclerosis

Physical disability

  • Different physical disabilities can range in severity and type. It is possible to have weakness, muscle spasms, coordination and balance challenges, and problems with walking or moving around.

Affects brain function

  • Memory, attention, information processing, and problem-solving challenges. Changes in concentration, multitasking process, and information processing speed may occur in some people.1Complications| Researched based study from

Mental and emotional well-being

  • Additionally, it could lead to mental health problems including depression, anxiety, or mood swings.4Complications| Researched based study from

Bowel and bladder issues

  • The nerves that regulate bowel and bladder function may be impacted. Urinary urgency, frequency, or constipation may result from this.

Sexually dysfunctional

  • It may alter libido, sensation, and sexual performance, among other aspects of sexual function. It can impact both men and women, changing things like erectile function, lubrication, erectile desire, and orgasm.1Complications| Researched based study from

Visual problems

  • Include vision loss, double vision, eye pain, and blurred vision.

Swallowing problems

  • It can sometimes impact the swallowing muscles, making it challenging to swallow safely and effectively.

Secondary health problems

  • People affected may have a higher chance of developing conditions like osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, pressure sores, lung infections, and urinary tract infections.4Complications| Researched based study from


What is the prognosis of Multiple sclerosis?

It is a chronic disease, and different people may experience other effects on life expectancy. However, it is a complex and unpredictable condition, and its progression and impact can vary significantly from person to person. In general, it does not dramatically affect life expectancy.

Several other factors include general health, treatment response, access to healthcare, concurrent diseases, and way of life.

Disclaimer: The user acknowledges that this article's information is being offered for informational purposes only. Every attempt has been made to guarantee that the article is informational and correct. If they have any doubts or questions about their health, we firmly advise our readers to visit a doctor or other healthcare professional.

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