Hysterectomy: Types, Process, Benefits and Complications

Research Based
Medically reviewed by - Dr Lara Mokhtar, MD Written by - Dr. Shilpa R


About Hysterectomy

The uterus, a pear-shaped organ where fetal development occurs during pregnancy, is removed during a hysterectomy. Hysterectomy is among the most frequent gynecological procedures carried out globally. It can be carried out using different techniques and for various medical issues. The various types of Hysterectomy, their mechanics, indications, preparation, technique, contraindications, benefits, drawbacks, restrictions, and potential consequences will all be covered in this article.

The uterus, a pear-shaped organ where fetal development occurs during pregnancy, is removed during a hysterectomy. Hysterectomy is among the most frequent gynecological procedures carried out globally.


Types of Hysterectomy

Depending on the problem being treated, you may need a different form of Hysterectomy. The main types are as follows:

  • Total Hysterectomy – During this procedure, the uterus’s cervix and complete body are removed. The most typical kind of Hysterectomy is this one1Types| Researched based study from
  • Partial Hysterectomy (subtotal or partial Hysterectomy) – In this procedure, a portion of the uterus is removed, leaving the cervix unharmed.
  • Radical Hysterectomy – Radical hysterectomy involves the removal of the uterus, cervix, upper vaginal wall, and surrounding tissues. It is frequently carried out for specific gynecologic malignancies1Types| Researched based study from


Methods to perform Hysterectomy

There are several ways to execute a hysterectomy, including:

  • Abdominal Hysterectomy – An abdominal wall incision is used to perform the procedure. It is the most usual method for a hysterectomy and is appropriate for greater uterine diameters or when other organs need to be evaluated2Methods| Researched based study from
  • Vaginal Hysterectomy – The removal of the uterus via the vaginal canal requires no external incisions. It is preferred when no extra surgery is needed and the uterus is of average size3Methods| Researched based study from
  • Laparoscopic Hysterectomy – This minimally invasive procedure makes minor incisions and removes the uterus using a laparoscope, a narrow tube with a camera4Methods| Researched based study from
  • Robotic-assisted Hysterectomy – This type of laparoscopic surgery uses robotic arms that the physician controls to carry out the process more precisely5Methods| Researched based study from


Uses & Indications of Hysterectomy

Hysterectomy is advised for several medical issues, which may include:

  • Uterine fibroids
  • Uterine cancer
  • Endometriosis
  • Prolapsed uterus
  • Chronic pelvic pain
  • Abnormal Uterine bleeding
  • Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

Uterine Fibroids

  • Non-cancerous uterine growths result in pressure, bleeding, and discomfort.6Uses| Researched based study from

Uterine Cancer

  • For some uterine cancer forms, a hysterectomy may be required.


  • When the uterus lining begins to protrude outside of it, resulting in discomfort and problems with conception.

Chronic Pelvic Pain

  • Severe, persistent pelvic pain that is resistant to various therapies.

Prolapsed Uterus

  • When there is insufficient pelvic support, the uterus drops into the vaginal canal.7Uses| Researched based study from

Chronic Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

  • Bleeding that is excessive or irregular that does not improve after trying conservative measures.


Preparation before Hysterectomy

A woman might need to do these things before having a hysterectomy :

  • A comprehensive medical evaluation includes a physical exam, blood testing, and imaging exams.
  • Stop taking any medications that might affect your recovery or ability to have surgery.
  • Talk with the surgeon about the surgical method and be aware of any possible drawbacks.
  • Discuss how the surgery may affect fertility and the possibility of freezing eggs or embryos before the operation.
  • Establish a post-operative and rehabilitation plan.

The Process

Process of Hysterectomy

The steps in a hysterectomy procedure are as follows:

  • Anesthesia – The patient is either put to sleep with general anesthesia or numbs the lower half of her body with a regional anesthetic.
  • Incision – Depending on the kind of Hysterectomy, an incision may be made in the abdominal or the vaginal canal8The Process| Researched based study from
  • Removal of the uterus – The uterus is removed after being carefully removed from nearby tissues and blood arteries.
  • Closure – The incisions are stitched, stapled, or glued shut.



Despite being a popular and generally safe treatment, Hysterectomy may not be advised for women if:

  • They want to maintain their fertility
  • Have Pelvic radiation 4Contraindications| Researched based study from
  • Have a serious lung or heart condition that makes surgery risky
  • Severe obesity for a long time 3Contraindications| Researched based study from
  • Had prior pelvic surgery


Benefits of Hysterectomy

A hysterectomy can relieve various medical issues, increasing a woman’s quality of life. Some benefits include:

  • Relieving persistent pelvic pain and unusual bleeding
  • The disappearance of endometriosis and uterine fibroids symptoms 9Benefits| Researched based study from
  • Successful treatment for several gynecological malignancies
  • The avoidance of further pelvic infections in those with persistent PID



Although hysterectomy provides many benefits, there are some downsides and limitations as well:

  • Infection – Infections could develop at the surgery site or around the pelvis10Complications| Researched based study from
  • Bleeding – Blood transfusions or extra procedures may be needed if a patient bleeds excessively during or after surgery11Complications| Researched based study from
  • Injury to nearby organs – During surgery, it’s possible to unintentionally harm blood vessels, the bladder, or the colon.
  • Infertility – Hysterectomy causes infertility, which prevents a woman from becoming pregnant and carrying it to term.
  • Emotional impact – After removing their uterus, some women could feel emotionally distressed and feel a sense of loss.
  • Hormonal changes – Removing the uterus, mainly if the ovaries are done simultaneously, may result in hormonal abnormalities.
  • Decreased interest in sex – Particularly if the ovaries are removed after a hysterectomy, some women experience vaginal dryness or decreased sex interest11Complications| Researched based study from
  • Vaginal cuff dehiscence – is a very uncommon complication in which the surgical incision on the vagina reopens12Complications| Researched based study from
  • Vaginal shortening – The length of the vagina may get shorter when the uterus is removed.
  • Increased risk of other health problems – If both ovaries are removed, you may be more susceptible to developing diseases like bone loss, heart disease, and urinary leakage.

The risk of complications is higher for some women than the others. For instance, women with an underlying medical condition may be more susceptible to anesthesia-related issues.

Bottom line

The Bottom Line

Hysterectomy reduces symptoms, including persistent pain, unusual bleeding, and uterine growth, and can significantly raise a woman’s quality of life. However, patients and their healthcare providers must have an in-depth conversation about the treatment, its indications, and any potential problems. Before deciding on a hysterectomy, women should also carefully evaluate their fertility goals and look into non-invasive procedures. In every situation, making an educated choice and following the proper medical advice will guarantee the best outcome for the patient.

Disclaimer: The user acknowledges that this article's information is being offered for informational purposes only. Every attempt has been made to guarantee that the article is informational and correct. If they have any doubts or questions about their health, we firmly advise our readers to visit a doctor or other healthcare professional.

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