Herpes: Causes, Symptoms, and Management

Research Based
Medically reviewed by - Dr Rabia Akram, MD Written by - Dr. Diksha Sangle


What is Herpes?

A family of viral diseases known as herpes can result in recurrent outbreaks that last a lifetime and are frequently accompanied by discomfort and social stigma. The two main viruses that causes it are herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). There are millions of people affected worldwide.

The following article thoroughly overviews herpes by examining its types, transmission, symptoms, treatments, and potential psychological effects.

A family of viral diseases known as herpes can result in recurrent outbreaks that last a lifetime and are frequently accompanied by discomfort and social stigma.


What are the types of Herpes?

Type 1 HSV (Herpes Simplex Virus)

  • The oral herpes virus, popularly known as cold sores or five-dollar blisters, is chiefly responsible for this.

Type 2 HSV (Herpes Simplex Virus)

  • Genital herpes, a sexually transmitted infection, is primarily caused by it.1Types| Researched based study from


Herpes symptoms

Oral herpes

  • Small, uncomfortable, fluid-filled blisters or sores on the lips, face, or mouth.
  • Ache or tickle before developing into blisters.
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck.
  • During the early outbreak, there may be a sore throat, fever, and general malaise1Symptoms| Researched based study from

Herpes genital

  • HSV-2-caused painful sores or blisters on the genitalia, buttocks, or thighs with symptoms similar to those of genital herpes but less frequent.
  • Blisters first experience a burning, tingling, or itching sensation.
  • Discomfort or pain when urinating
  • There may be flu-like symptoms in the early stages of the outbreak, including fever, body aches, and swollen glands.
  • Recurring outbreaks could be milder and last for a shorter period.

Herpes symptoms can vary from person to person. In addition to varying frequency and severity between outbreaks, some people may only experience a few signs or none1Symptoms| Researched based study from ,2Symptoms| Researched based study from


Herpes causes

Skin-to-skin direct contact

  • Direct contact with an active epidemic or places where the virus is spread can result in the transmission of the infection. Any close skin-to-skin contact, including kissing, oral-genital contact, anal or vaginal sex, is capable of causing this.

Spreading viruses

  • It can spread by viral shedding even if there aren’t any overt signs or current breakouts.
  • It describes when a virus escapes from the skin or mucous membrane and applies to others. People who are asymptomatic could unintentionally transfer the disease to others.

Sexual transmission

  • It is primarily an illness spread through sexual contact. Unprotected vaginal, anal, or oral contact with an infected person can spread the virus.
  • It’s crucial to remember that while antiviral medications and condoms can help lower the risk, they may not completely eradicate it.

Mother-to-child transmission

  • Pregnant women who give birth risk spreading the infection to their unborn children.
  • Herpes history during pregnancy should be discussed with a doctor to lower the risk and take the proper precautions1Causes| Researched based study from ,2Causes| Researched based study from

Neonatal herpes

  • Here, an infection is characterized as existing during the first few weeks of a newborn baby’s life. It is passed from the mother to the baby during childbirth, and if the mother has an active herpes virus infection at the time of delivery, it may also be the cause.
  • It could result in severe consequences and perhaps the infant’s death. Brain damage, developmental delays, vision impairment, and even death are the effects it may cause. The severity of the illness and how promptly treatment starts will determine the outcome7Causes| Researched based study from

Risk factors

Risk factors associated with Herpes

  • Having unprotected oral, anal, or vaginal sex with a person who is infected.
  • Having more than one sexual partner or being involved with someone who has.
  • Not wearing dental dams or condoms when having intercourse.
  • An oral or vaginal herpes infection in the past may raise the risk.
  • People undergoing chemotherapy, those with HIV/AIDS, or those with impaired immune systems.
  • Sharing items with an infected person, such as towels, razors, or utensils.3Risk factors| Researched based study from


Diagnosis of Herpes

Medical history

  • The medical professional will inquire about your symptoms, including earlier blisters, sores, or other discomfort.

Physical examination

  • The doctor will physically check the affected region to check for symptoms and seek recognizable symptoms. They might also contain other body parts for any further infection-related signs.

Viral culture

  • You could carry out a viral culture. A swab of fluid is removed from a blister or sore and sent to the lab for testing. The sample is examined to look for the herpes virus.

Tests using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

  • They are extremely sensitive and are able to identify the DNA of the virus. To find out whether a virus is present, a sample is taken.

Blood tests (serology)

  • They can identify herpes antibodies in the blood.
  • The Western blot and the ELISA test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) are two examples of these tests. As they can detect the antibodies the immune system has developed in reaction to the virus, they help identify current and old infections.4Diagnosis| Researched based study from


Herpes Treatment.

Herpes Treatment

Although there is no therapy for herpes, there are ways to control and relieve the symptoms.

Here are a few typical strategies:

Antibiotics for viruses

  • Antiviral medications can lessen the intensity of herpes outbreak symptoms and decrease the frequency of outbreaks—these drugs prevent the virus from replicating.
  • Acyclovir and famiclovir are a few examples of antiviral medications. They come in various forms, including intravenous formulations, topical creams, and tablet forms5Treatment| Researched based study from ,6Treatment| Researched based study from

Pain relief

  • Two over-the-counter medications, ibuprofen or paracetamol, can help reduce the discomfort, inflammation, and fever associated with it.
  • Local pain relief can be achieved by applying topical analgesics such as lidocaine lotions or ointments.

Correct hygiene practices

  • Maintaining cleanliness is essential for stopping the spread of an epidemic and reducing discomfort.
  • It’s crucial to keep the affected region dry and clean. To prevent the sores or blisters from spreading, don’t touch them.

Cold compress

  • During outbreaks, applying cold compresses or ice packs to the affected area may help lessen discomfort, itchiness, and inflammation.

Reducing stress

  • Stress on the body or mind might trigger the disease in some people. It may be possible to manage these through meditation, relaxation exercises, or counseling.

Safe sexual practices

  • It’s important to let your partner know if you have genital herpes. Even during symptom-free periods, using condoms consistently and adequately can help lower the risk of transmission5Treatment| Researched based study from ,6Treatment| Researched based study from


What is the prognosis of Herpes?

  • This depends on several factors, such as the types of viruses involved, the site of the infection, general health, immunological status, and the type of treatment used.
  • Herpes currently has no known treatment option. The virus infects someone and stays in their body for the rest of their lives. Recurrent outbreaks might result from the virus regularly reactivating from a latent condition.1Prognosis| Researched based study from

Bottom Line

The Bottom line

The virus that is causing herpes affects millions of individuals. It can have negative effects on both physical and emotional health because of the stigma involved.

Antiviral medications can effectively manage symptoms and reduce the frequency and intensity of outbreaks even though the condition cannot be cured.

The primary three strategies for managing it are prevention, early detection, and management. It’s crucial to remember that the information presented here is general, and people will experience things differently. If you have specific concerns or questions, the best course of action is to speak with a healthcare professional.

Disclaimer: The user acknowledges that this article's information is being offered for informational purposes only. Every attempt has been made to guarantee that the article is informational and correct. If they have any doubts or questions about their health, we firmly advise our readers to visit a doctor or other healthcare professional.

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