Birth DefectsBirth Defects: Causes and Care
Frequently Asked Questions
Any issue that arises in the baby when it is growing inside its mother’s body is referred to as a birth defect.
Birth defects also known as congenital anomalies; arise during pregnancy and can be detected before or at birth as well as later in life. It could range from moderate to severe.
- Gene defects
- Socio-economic situation
- Environmental factors
- Multifactorial inheritance
- Maternal age
- Unknown causes
The symptoms can be of numerous varieties depending on the kind of birth defect. Some examples include:
- An abnormality in the shape of the face
- Disproportionate hands, feet, or limbs
- Tilted eyes, little ears with a top fold
- A small mouth and a protruding tongue
- A little nose with a flattened nasal bridge
- Short neck or big ears
- Tiny hands with short fingers
- Cleft lip or cleft palate
It is crucial to take a few steps as mentioned below to practice good health both before and during pregnancy:
- Eat a nutrient-rich, balanced diet.
- Keep a healthy weight.
- Consume folic acid-rich prenatal vitamins.
- Get a vaccination against diseases like rubella.
- Keep away from pesticides and heavy metals.
- Pregnancy is a time to control blood sugar.
- Steer clear of radiation exposure.
Complications like a miscarriage or an infant death. They could consist of the following:
- Eyesight problem.
- Hearing issues.
- Middle ear infections.
- Learning disability.
- Long-lasting lung disease.
- Increased blood pressure.
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder. (OCD)
- Attention deficit or hyperactivity syndrome. (ADHD)
Treatment is not necessary for certain mild congenital abnormalities. However, treatment options for moderate to severe defects may include:
- Medicine – The quality of life can be improved with medical therapy for several metabolic, endocrine, and hematological diseases. For example – the management of congenital hypothyroidism.
- Prenatal surgery – aims to prevent long-term effects with early treatment. Surgery is frequently used to fix fetal heart and kidney problems while the kid is still in the womb.
- Postnatal surgery – Soon after delivery, surgery is frequently required for serious structural defects like cleft lip, cleft palate, and spina bifida.
- Gene therapy – may be a potential treatment for some genetic abnormalities, but it is not yet widely utilized.