Diet types : A General Overview

Research Based
Medically reviewed by - Dr. MESSANGA Dimitri, MD Written by - Dr. Shilpa R


What is Diet ?

A person’s diet is the collection of drinks and foods they consume regularly. Diets come in a wide variety, each serving a different purpose. The practice of dieting involves consuming a restricted diet to lose or keep a specific weight by either decreasing a person’s appetite or limiting calories, carbohydrates or fats. Some individuals adopt unhealthy diets out of routine rather than deliberately deciding. Many diets are available to lose weight and get health benefits. There are a variety of diets to pick from, some of which might include the following:

A person's diet is the collection of drinks and foods they consume regularly.

Paleo Diet

The paleo diet

A paleo diet is an eating regimen consisting only of items hunters and gatherers could obtain during the Paleolithic Era.

  • How it works – A paleo diet currently includes veggies, fruits, seafood, eggs, lean meats, seeds, and nuts. It excludes foods that spread in popularity as small-scale cultivation got underway.
  • Benefits – lowers blood pressure, obesity, cardiac issues, and type 2 diabetes while improving body weight and other metrics. 1Paleo diet | Researched based study from
  • Drawbacks – prohibits whole grains, legumes, and dairy products are legumes, and dairy products on the paleo diet. Investigating the long-term health benefits is necessary.

Vegan Diet

The vegan diet

The vegan lifestyle is more of a way of life than a diet. Anything made from an animal, such as dairy products, honey, and eggs, is restricted to vegans.

  • How it works – excludes everything from animals, including gelatin, honey, albumin, whey, casein, some forms of vitamin D3, and meat, dairy, and eggs.
  • Benefits – low fat and high fibre composition help a person feel full for a long time. It reduces the chance of developing obesity, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and certain cancers.
  • Drawbacks – may experience nutrient shortfalls of vitamin B12, D, iodine, calcium, zinc, or omega-3 fatty acids 2Vegan diet | Researched based study from .

Zone Diet

The Zone diet

Over many years, the Zone Diet has gained popularity. It promotes eating a specific quantity of protein, carbohydrates, and fat at each meal, too, among other things, lessens inflammatory reactions in the body.3Zonediet | Researched based study from

  • How it works – The Zone diet aims to lessen inflammation and promote normal insulin levels. It might assist individuals in balancing their protein and carbohydrate intake.
  • Benefits – fat reduction, regulates blood sugar level, slower ageing, improved cognition, and improved performance are all its claimed benefits.
  • Drawbacks – Very little proof suggests the theory leading to the claimed outcomes.

Low carb Diet

Low-carb diet

A low-carb diet restricts carbohydrates or carbs, such as grains, starchy veggies, and fruits. Low-carb plans come in many forms. 4Low carb diet | Researched based study from The kinds and amounts of carbohydrates a person is allowed to consume vary depending on the diet.

  • How it works – limits carbohydrates and prioritizes protein- and fat-rich foods.
  • Benefits – reduces the chance of heart problems while promoting weight reduction and blood sugar control.
  • Drawbacks – can make individuals feel weak as they miss out on micronutrients from fruits. It also causes a headache, muscle cramps and constipation. 5Low carb diet | Researched based study from

Keto Diet

The keto diet

A high-fat, moderately high-protein, very low-carb diet known as the ketogenic or keto diet has become increasingly common in recent years.

  • How it works – As the body runs out of blood sugar, the disintegration of protein and fat for energy starts, causing a person to lose weight. We refer to this as ketosis. It’s essential to remember that it is a temporary eating plan with a weight loss goal rather than a search for health benefits.
  • Benefits – improves cholesterol levels, controls appetite, and treats seizures. 6Keto diet | Researched based study from
  • Drawbacks – Long-term adherence may be challenging due to symptoms like constipation, headaches, exhaustion, mental fog, irritability, etc.

Atkins Diet

The Atkins diet

It is a popular low-carbohydrate diet for losing weight. 7Atkins diet | Researched based study from According to supporters, people can lose weight by eating as much fat and protein as they want if they avoid carbohydrates.

  • How it works – Low-carb diets are particularly effective for weight reduction because they decrease appetite. A person automatically consumes fewer calories as a result.
  • Benefits – may lower blood pressure, blood sugar, insulin, and cholesterol.
  • Drawbacks – like other extremely low-carb diets, this is generally secure and healthy but may occasionally result in issues like joint pain, gout, kidney stones, and osteoporosis. 8Atkins diet | Researched based study from

Intermittent fasting

Intermittent fasting

Alternate fasting and feeding windows make up intermittent fasting. It regulates when a person consumes certain foods instead of restricting what they can eat. Therefore, it can be considered an eating pattern rather than a diet.

  • How it works – It uses several techniques, including the eat-stop-eat, the 5:2 diet, warrior, and 16/8 techniques. 9Intermittent fasing | Researched based study from As long as a person does not overcompensate by consuming significantly more food during eating times, it can cause them to consume fewer calories overall. 10Intermittent fasting | Researched based study from
  • Benefits – helps in weight loss, improves insulin sensitivity, raises the amount of growth hormone, and manages blood cholesterol, blood sugar, and markers of inflammation. 11Intermittent fasting | Researched based study from
  • Drawbacks – It is not suitable for everyone, despite being safe for healthy individuals. Some studies show that males gain more from it than females do. It is best to avoid intermittent fasting for pregnant or breastfeeding women, adolescents, kids, and those who are diabetic, malnourished, or underweight.

Dukan Diet

The Dukan diet

The Dukan diet is a low-carb, high-protein weight-reduction plan divided into two maintenance and weight-loss phases. The weight a person needs to lose will determine how long a person spends in each step. Every stage has a specific dietary plan.

  • How it works – One can eat as much high-protein food as they want and must consume oat bran during the weight loss stages. The subsequent steps involve adding non-starchy vegetables, carbohydrates, and fat.12Dukan diet | Researched based study from
  • Benefits – weight reduction, a faster metabolism, a decrease in appetite hormones and an increase in fullness hormones.
  • Drawbacks – No reliable human research has examined the Dukan diet. While the diet may result in weight reduction, it also risks slowing the metabolism and causing muscle mass loss in addition to fat mass.

Mediterranean Diet

The Mediterranean diet

Countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, like Italy, Spain, Greece and France, followed the Mediterranean diet.

  • How it works – Although the diet has no rigid rules or regulations, it usually promotes vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, whole grains, legumes, and heart-healthy fats. Limits intake of refined grains, processed meals, and added sugar.
  • Benefits – Improves memory and lowers the risk of Alzheimer’s, dementia, stroke, heart disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and early death. 13Mediterranean diet | Researched based study from
  • Drawbacks – may cause low calcium and iron levels, and some individuals may put on weight due to the nuts and oils.14Mediterranean diet | Researched based study from


The Dash Diet

Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension is known by its acronym, DASH. For people with high blood pressure, this is the best weight-loss strategy.

  • How it works – This kind of diet places a strong emphasis on eating a variety of fruits and vegetables, as well as nuts, and whole grains. By limiting salt and sugar, this diet naturally promotes weight loss. 15DASH diet| Researched based study from
  • Benefits – facilitates weight loss and lowers blood pressure in people with type 2 diabetes and hypertension.
  • Drawbacks – It is necessary to track food extensively. This diet should not be followed by those with chronic liver or kidney disease.


The Outlook

Many diets have little long-term benefit and offer significant health risks. This is especially true of fad or crash diets, short-term weight-loss programs that demand tremendous adjustments to a person’s regular eating patterns. No one diet is best for everyone, as what is effective for one person may not be for another. Choosing which course to take could be difficult. People should choose a diet that fits their lifestyle and preferences because different diets are effective for various lifestyles. People should follow a diet they can maintain over the long run.

Disclaimer: The user acknowledges that this article's information is being offered for informational purposes only. Every attempt has been made to guarantee that the article is informational and correct. If they have any doubts or questions about their health, we firmly advise our readers to visit a doctor or other healthcare professional.

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