Empliciti: Uses, Dosage and Side effects
What is Empliciti?
Empliciti is a brand name for elotuzumab medicine produced by Bristol-Myers Squibb that has received a lot of focus for treating multiple myeloma, a kind of blood cancer. It is classified into a group of medications known as monoclonal antibodies, which are used as an immunotherapy. Empliciti is processed mainly by the liver.
This article will examine how Empliciti works, its uses, side effects, precautions, risks, drug interactions, and its comparison with Darzalex.
How does Empliciti work?
- It works by activating particular white blood cells in the body known as Natural killer (NK) cells, which strengthens a person’s immunity.
- The medication also identifies myeloma cells, making them more visible to NK cells.
- Activated NK cells can then recognize and eradicate myeloma cells.
What is Empliciti used for?
Multiple myeloma is treated with Empliciti, an immuno-stimulatory antibody as follows:
Empliciti with dexamethasone and lenalidomide
- It is given to adults with one to three treatments for multiple myeloma.
Empliciti with dexamethasone and pomalidomide
- It is given to adults who were previously treated two times for multiple myeloma with drugs including lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor like carfilzomib or bortezomib.
Dosage of Empliciti
- When combined with lenalidomide and dexamethasone – 10 mg/kg is injected intravenously (IV) once a week for the initial two cycles, then every two weeks until the progression of the disease or intolerable toxicities.
- When combined with pomalidomide and dexamethasone – 10 mg/kg is injected by vein (IV) every week for the initial two cycles, followed by 20 mg/kg every four weeks until the illness progresses or has severe toxicity.
How is it used?
Empliciti is provided as a powder in single-use vials mixed with a liquid and given as an intravenous (IV) infusion. (Delivered in a healthcare facility into a person’s vein over time)
Empliciti comes in the following strengths:
- A single-use vial of 300 mg powder.
- A single-use vial of 400 mg powder.
Other medications, such as dexamethasone, acetaminophen, ranitidine, and diphenhydramine, are given to the patients at least an hour before the Empliciti infusion to prevent allergies, fever, and stomach burning.
Empliciti vs Darzalex
- Drug – Empliciti, as previously mentioned, is a brand name for the drug elotuzumab, whereas Darzalex is a name for daratumumab.
- FDA approval – Both Empliciti and Darzalex are licensed to treat adults with multiple myeloma.
- Use in combination – Both are used to treat multiple myeloma with other drugs like pomalidomide and dexamethasone in individuals who have tried at least two previous therapies that comprised lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor.
- Used alone – Darzalex is also approved to be used alone by the FDA for treating multiple myeloma in individuals who have previously had at least three therapies. At the same time, Empliciti is always given in combination.
- Available form – Empliciti is available in powder form, which has to be prepared into a solution and administered as an intravenous (IV) infusion, wherever Darzalex is available as a liquid that can be administered intravenously (IV).
- Dosage strength – Darzalex comes in two dosage strengths, namely 100 mg/5 mL and 400 mg/20 ml. whereas Empliciti comes in two strengths, namely, 300 mg and 400 mg.
- Administration – both are given as intravenous (IV) infusions in a medical setting.
- Efficiency – Clinical trials have not directly compared these medications. Separate studies, however, have proven both Empliciti and Darzalex beneficial in treating multiple myeloma.
Side effects of Empliciti
Common side effects of Empliciti reported by patients receiving them include:
- Sore throat
- Bone pain
- Nasal congestion
- Appetite loss
- Muscle spasms
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Shortness of breath
- Low white blood cell count
- Numbness and pain in hands and feet
- Low blood platelets
Severe side effects
- Infusion reactions – Empliciti may cause itching, fever, chills, rigor, nausea, rashes, and swelling of any body part during or within 24 hours following the IV infusion. Premedication should be administered before using Empliciti to avoid these infusion reactions.
- Infections – Empliciti may raise the risk of some infections, including upper respiratory tract infections and pneumonia, and people should be observed for fever and other signs of illness and treated as soon as possible.
- Second primary malignancy (SPM) – Empliciti, when used in patients with multiple myeloma, increased the risk of certain cancers among them.
- Liver toxicity – Because the liver breaks down Empliciti, doctors should monitor liver function and discontinue the medication if any harm to the liver is suspected.
- Fetal toxicity – When Empliciti and dexamethasone are used with lenalidomide or pomalidomide, there is a danger of fetal toxicity, as both pomalidomide and lenalidomide have been linked to damage to the unborn baby. ,
- Before beginning Empliciti treatment, reviewing the patient’s health history and any pre-existing illnesses with their healthcare professional is critical.
- Empliciti should not be given to patients who have previously experienced a severe allergic response to elotuzumab or its ingredients.
- Infusion-related symptoms, such as fever, chills, itching, rash, or difficulty breathing, should be regularly monitored in Empliciti patients. If any severe allergic reactions develop, get emergency medical treatment or quit Empliciti.
- Empliciti, like other cancer treatments, may depress the immune system, increasing the likelihood of acquiring infection and people taking it, should also take the required steps to reduce the possibility of an infection and to report any signs of illness to their doctors as soon as possible.
- People who are pregnant, think they may be pregnant, or intend to become pregnant while using Empliciti, should consult their doctor first because the drugs it is used in combination with are known to be toxic to an unborn baby.
- Nursing moms are also advised to refrain from breastfeeding during Empliciti medication because it may affect the newborn.
- Certain medications may interact with Empliciti or with other drugs used in combination during the treatment, like lenalidomide, pomalidomide, dexamethasone, or other pre-meditations.
- They may potentially affect its effectiveness or increase an individual’s chance of side effects.
- Doctor will assess potential drug interactions and modify their treatment plan accordingly.
- So, one must inform their healthcare provider about all the medications they are currently taking, including prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines, and herbal supplements.
The Bottom Line
While clinical trials have shown positive benefits for Empliciti, it is critical to regularly talk about any worries or adverse reactions experienced with your medical professional. As with any medical treatment, following all healthcare providers’ recommendations is crucial, and any difficulties should be discussed regularly. This can ensure that they will provide tailored supervision and assure your safety and well-being throughout the treatment procedure.