What is Carnosine and its health benefits?
What is Carnosine?
Carnosine is a natural substance found in our bodies. It is composed of two amino acids- alanine and histidine. Carnosine is mainly found in muscle tissue, including the heart, brain, and other organs. Carnosine helps overall health by maintaining healthy muscles and boosting the body’s immune response.
Facts of Carnosine
- Carnosine is a natural oxidant found in human tissues
- Carnosine is also known as n-acetyl Carnosine and L-carnosine
- L-carnosine is the form the body cells can efficiently utilize.
- Carnosine helps preserve our general body strength and is sometimes known as a ‘longevity molecule.’
- Carnosine deficiency is rare, but people on low protein diet are more likely to be deficient
Sources of Carnosine
- Chicken breast
- Duck breast
Dosage of Carnosine
- The guidelines for dosage recommendation have not been established for the Carnosine supplement as the therapeutic dosage is yet to be proven.
- However, the recommended dose in most studies is 50 to 1000 milligrams per day.
- Moreover, most of the dosage is used for animal models, so assessing the dosage efficiency in humans is difficult.
- It is always best to consult a physician to know the correct dose based on the individual’s health status
Benefits of Carnosine
Reduce muscle fatigue
- Carnosine then acts as a buffer to neutralize the muscle’s acidity during rigorous exercise, maintaining the muscle’s activity and reduces fatigue
- In animal models, Carnosine delays the diabetes progression
- It decreases the complication of the disease
However, further research is needed.
- In laboratory studies, Carnosine prevents the growth of abnormal cancer cells.
- It prevents colon, breast, and ovarian cancer cell proliferation
However, human trials are needed to prove its efficiency
- In invitro studies, Carnosine inhibits amyloid plaque formation. Amyloid plaque is an abnormal protein clump between brain cells and obstructs brain cell functioning.
- It protects the brain from reactive oxygen species(unstable molecules containing oxygen)
However, clinical trials are needed in humans to prove the effect of Carnosine on Alzheimer’s disease.
- N-acetyl Carnosine eye drops improve the vision of cataract patients
- Zinc L-carnosine prevents and heals the intestinal damage
- It improves the intestinal permeability
- It protects the deoxyribonucleic acid from damage
- It nullifies the free radicals in the body
- In animal studies, Carnosine improved the wound healing
- It increased the expression of cytokines
- Cytokines are small proteins responsible for controlling other immune cells
However, more research is warranted.
Improves mental health
- Carnosine improves memory and intelligence in older adults
However, more clinical trials are needed.
- In one clinical trial, Carnosine improved the symptoms of autism, such as communication and socialization
However, more clinical trials are needed on autistic individuals to prove the effect of Carnosine.
- Carnosine, with other standard treatments, improved the oxygen uptake capacity in heart failure patients.
- It improved the exercise performance of the patients .
Other research areas of Carnosine
- Atherosclerosis( a disease in which sticky substances build up in the arteries)
- Immune response( body’s response to fight infections)
- ATP(Adenosine triphosphate) levels in cancer cells
- ATP is the energy source for storage and uses at the cellular level
- Oxidative stress in cancerous ovarian cells
- Gene Expression in liver cancer cells
Deficiency of carnosine
Deficiency symptoms of Carnosine
Carnosine deficiency causes a rare inherited metabolic disorder called Carnosinemia.
- Extreme tiredness
- Involuntary shaking of head, legs, and arms
- Mental problem
- Slow growth
Supplements types of Carnosine
Carnosine supplements are available in health stores in the following forms
- Tablet form
- Powder form
- Carnosine in other multivitamins tablets
However, the United States does not regulate Carnosine supplements, and many of the supplements might not be tested for safety.
So individuals must always opt for reputed brands of Carnosine supplements tested and approved by recognized agencies like Consumer Lab and NSF (public health and safety organization) to get the best available quality
Carnosine supplement storage
- One should store the Carnosine supplements in a dry and cool place
- It should not be kept next to direct sunlight or in hot and humid places
- One should keep it out of reach of young children
- And one should not store it in a refrigerator
- However, following the storage instructions mentioned in the product level is best.
Side effects of Carnosine
There needs to be more information on the Carnosine supplement’s safety. Carnosine is generally safe when used appropriately, but common side effects may occur.
Some common side effects reported are as follows
- Skin rash
- Dry mouth
- Appetite loss
- Foot and joint pain
However, taking the Carnosine supplement as directed by the physician to prevent untoward side effects is essential.
Overdose toxicity of Carnosine
- Human safety trials are warranted to understand the overdose toxicity of Carnosine
However, more Carnosine intake might increase an individual’s risk of side effects.
Precautions one should take while using Carnosine
Pregnant women, nursing mothers, and children
- Pregnant women, nursing mothers, and children should refrain from using Carnosine supplements due to the lack of information on their safety and efficiency in these groups.
Patients with surgical operations
- Carnosine might decrease the blood sugar level after surgery
- Also, Carnosine must only be consumed before two weeks of planned surgery.
Interactions of Carnosine
- Carnosine might lower blood sugar
- Antidiabetic medicine also lowers blood sugar
- So taking Carnosine and antidiabetic medicine might lower blood sugar and decrease the drug’s efficiency.
Antihypertensive (High blood pressure medication)
- Carnosine lowers the blood pressure
- The antihypertensive medication also lowers the blood pressure
- Taking Carnosine and antihypertensive medicine together might further lower the blood pressure causing dizziness and faint
Some of the antihypertensive medications that might interact with Carnosine are as follows
- Carnosine is the natural compound present in animals and humans
- Grass-fed meat is the best source of Carnosine
- There needs to be more scientific proof to determine the appropriate dose of Carnosine for humans.
- Research on Carnosine is limited in humans to determine its potential health benefits.
- Talking to a health care professional before including Carnosine supplements in their diet is always recommended.